The Bredesen ReCODE Protocol™ way of eating is known as KetoFLEX 12/3™
KetoFLEX™ is a therapeutic food plan that nurtures brain health and reverses common underlying causes of chronic disease especially for the non-athletic/sedentary older adult population. It is a therapeutic diet that many people thrive on. The template is an excellent, effective eating plan that should be personalized to best suit each individual.
KetoFLEX 12/3™ in a nutshell:
- ample non-starchy colorful vegetables, nuts, seeds, avocados, herbs, pasture-raised eggs, wild-caught fish/seafood, mushrooms, non-polluted water, and olive oil
- some non-tropical fruit, grass-fed meats, pasture-raised poultry, legumes, coconut, ghee/butter, starchy vegetables, and coffee/tea
- minimal processed foods (i.e. flour), added sugar, high-glycemic fruit, gluten-free whole grains, dairy (small amounts if well tolerated), gluten (none if intolerant), pesticides/additives, and high-mercury fish
- consume food within a 12-hour or less window during the day for an overnight fast that promotes mild ketosis
- finish eating 3 hours before bedtime
- lots of healthy fats and supplemental MCTs (Medium Chain Triglycerides)/ketone ester/ketone salts when needed to support nutritional ketosis
- over the long-term, individuals with dyslipidemia and/or who carrier the ApoE4 allele are advised to limit their intake of saturated fat, including the aforementioned coconut products, dairy/butter/ghee, fatty meats, and MCTs
Dr. Bredesen describes this diet for preventing and treating cognitive decline in “The End of Alzheimer’s”. KetoFLEX™ emphasizes a variety of seasonal non-starchy vegetables, adequate protein, and generous amounts of healthy fats. It is low in processed foods overall such that carbohydrates come with ample fiber and phytonutrients.
Since Dr. Bredesen’s book doesn’t provide KetoFLEX™ recipes or meal plans, I provide my own extensive food, grocery shopping, recipe, and diet resources to everyone I coach, as well as meal plans upon request. If you subscribe to Apollo Health’s ReCODE or ReVERSE program, you’ll receive online access to “Nutritional Guidelines” and other resources for KetoFLEX™. You can explore some KetoFLEX-aligned recipe books here.
Putting the “keto” in KetoFLEX
“Keto” refers to a dietary strategy that fosters a state of ketosis, fueling your brain and body with significant levels of ketones as well as glucose. “FLEX” parly refers to metabolic flexibility to run on a combination of ketones and glucose in contrast to how most Americans primarily rely on glucose all the time. Note that KetoFLEX™ is lower in meat, total protein, and saturated fat than many popular ketogenic diets. “12/3” gives attention to the timing of consumed food, not just the constituents such that eating stops 3 hours or more before bedtime and the overnight fast lasts at least 12 hours. Up to a 16-hour overnight fast AKA an 8-hour time-restricted feeding window works well for most people.
Carbohydrate foods in a KetoFLEX™ diet have a low glycemic index and load. Avoiding simple and processed carbohydrates (i.e. bread, pasta, juice, soda, rice cakes) doesn’t necessarily keep people in continuous ketosis. Ketosis is a normal metabolic state of the body when ketones are generated while burning fat for fuel due to carbohydrates (and glucogenic amino acids) being in short supply. People with cognitive decline on the Bredesen Protocol™ are usually advised to try a therapeutically ultra low carb version of the KetoFLEX™ diet to get them into a sustained state of mild ketosis. The KetoFLEX™ dietary therapy was designed especially for older adults at risk for or reversing dementia. Pregnant women, some athletes, kids, and people with other conditions might be better served with a different diet and macronutrient profile.
This way of eating alleviates many of the drivers of cognitive decline by
- reversing insulin resistance,
- promoting metabolic flexibility,
- partially fueling the brain with ketones,
- lowering inflammation,
- enhancing detoxification,
- shifting the gut and oral microbiome to foster better brain health,
- probably stimulating autophagy for removal of damaged proteins and mitochondria,
- nourishing the brain—protecting against the nutrient deficiencies associated with dementia,
- providing ample dietary building blocks for creating new nerve connections,
- and eliminating common food sensitivities.
Though there are healthy dietary frameworks, KetoFLEX 12/3™ is singularly therapeutic for the most common biochemical and metabolic issues in adults with risk factors for cognitive decline.
Eat more brain healthy food and less processed food within a 12-hour daily window.
If you’re not used to eating this way, just take it step-by-step. If you’re feeling gung-ho, that’s terrific, but I encourage a slow transition for long-term success. Gradually allow your metabolism to adapt to running on more fat and less sugar without dips in blood sugar. As first steps, you may want to:
- gradually reduce added sugar, processed food, and flour while increasing your intake of foods rich in healthy fats, like nuts, eggs, olives, olive oil, and fatty cold-water small-mouthed fish.
- eat a colorful array of non-starchy vegetables daily, as tolerated
- gradually become accustomed to not eating breakfast or significant caloric additions to your coffee (i.e. creamer, sugar) until at least twelve hours have elapsed overnight since your last food intake.
If you can achieve the goals in the three bullet points above, mountains of scientific literature suggest that you will significantly lower your risk of the common chronic diseases, including Alzheimer’s. Terrific!
Everyone’s version of KetoFLEX™ will be unique.
KetoFLEX™ has “FLEX” for flexible in its name. The template is flexible and should be personalized to your conditions and preferences. Your KetoFLEX™ meals will be different from mine.
The images below are a few examples of colorful brain food meals in my diet (these and more recipes available to all my clients and patients). Notice how a KetoFLEX™ diet looks different from popular ketogenic diets dominated by keto sports bars, Bulletproof coffees, fatty meats, keto meal replacement drinks, coconut oil, processed foods (i.e. keto waffles), tons of cheese/sour cream/butter, bacon, and “fat bombs”. These mainstream keto foods may appear in small amounts in the KetoFLEX™ nutrition plan, but are not mainstays.
Don’t worry if these dishes shown are not your “cup of tea”! You can develop entirely different wholesome KetoFLEX™ meals to satisfy you. If you’re worried that this way of eating won’t satisfy your sweet tooth , you may be pleasantly surprised by how your taste buds adapt over time to savor nuanced food flavors otherwise overwhelmed by added sugar. Furthermore, you can utilize a little stevia, monkfruit, or erythritol sweetener as a sugar substitute and may pleasure in the creamy textures of diet high in good fats.
It’s not all-or-none. Every step you make toward more brain healthy food choices is good for you. It helps if you enlist the support of a partner or friend eager to eat à la KetoFLEX™. Strive for better eating without the diet perfectionism that creates stress. Note that Dr. Bredesen’s patients who reversed cognitive impairment still fudged a bit on their KetoFLEX™ diets.
If you’re having trouble, I can provide an abundance of personal support and meal/snack/grocery/restaurant planning. Coaching can be the make-or-break element that averts overwhelm, gets you taking one well-guided step at a time, and resumes your course if you veer off track.
The KetoFLEX 12/3™ blueprint requires personalization.
When customizing the KetoFLEX™ diet to individual needs, we may pay attention to macronutrient ratios. Some guidance on macronutrients can be found via the link below or here.
People already experiencing cognitive decline are advised to try a fully ketogenic version of KetoFLEX™ that is ultra low carb. Read more about the strict ketogenic version of the Ketoflex™ via the link below or here.
KetoFLEX™ eating manifests in a diversity of ways suited to personal preferences and health considerations. Carbohydrate intake is tailored to each person’s level of glucose tolerance and physical activity. Some choose a vegetarian version for ethical reasons. Those with certain gut conditions may limit (otherwise healthy) vegetables until gut health is restored. The amount of saturated fat intake should be lower for those with genetic risks (ApoE4/4 status) or elevated LDLp. People with failing kidneys or fighting cancer may be advised to eat less protein. Pasture-raised eggs and nuts can be terrific staples, except for those with sensitivities. Individuals taking the blood thinner coumadin/wafarin would not eat the leafy deep green vegetables usually encouraged on this diet without consulting their prescribing physician. Diabetics often see remarkable improvements on this diet, but require physician oversight and responsive adjustment of their medication as they proceed. Very thin individuals (BMI < 20) need extra attention to getting ample calories and healthy fats to avoid experiencing excessive weight loss on this diet. Other individuals may benefit from reducing FODMAPs, oxalates, phytates, nightshades, and/or lectins. The list goes on and on. This webpage is meant to be a useful starting framework; it is by no means comprehensive.
As a ReCODE Report Qualified™ health coach, I work with your doctor to personalize the KetoFLEX™ diet for you, tailor the diet to your taste buds, and bring awareness to any blind spots in how well your eating aligns with your goals. Coaching helps you identify and focus on all good stuff that you can eat, keeping in mind a positive vision of how healthy eating will indeed help you optimize brain health and age well.
Coaching certainly helps to guide, simplify, accelerate, and ease the transition, especially to a fully ketogenic version of KetoFLEX 12/3™. It takes a little while to get comfortable with new KetoFLEX™ eating habits and to iterate on the diet until you’re feeling your best. It also may take some coaching support to find your groove and not fall off the wagon. After the upfront investment of effort and time to transition to new eating habits, it can become your new normal that’s easy to maintain.
Food can be exceptionally powerful brain medicine.
Consider a trial of the therapeutic KetoFLEX™ diet to experience the benefits for yourself. A gradual, initial ramp up may take adjustment and professional support. Check in with your body after clocking a full month honestly sticking to the aforementioned KetoFLEX™ principles at least 80% of the time. Most people clearly feel better after four weeks of following a well-formulated KetoFLEX™ food plan. If not, you may need a functional/naturopathic/integrative medicine practitioner playing detective to figure out why—i.e. poor digestion, gut dysbiosis, other bowel conditions, misinterpretation in applying the dietary principles, anxiety, or less common idiopathic conditions. KetoFLEX™ is a biologically-appropriate diet for most people, but some individuals may be exceptions who ultimately need a different dietary approach. An experienced practitioner can troubleshoot and guide you to an alternative food plan as appropriate.
After 2-6 months or longer on a well-formulated personalized KetoFLEX™ diet
In my clinical experience, after just a few months, I most commonly observe
- substantial fat loss in people who were overweight
- reports of feeling more cognitively clear
- key biomarkers, especially fasting insulin and Hba1c, come closer to optimal ranges
- people who were pre-diabetic normalize their blood sugar
- diabetics (under doctor’s supervision) reduce medications
- resolution of chronic constipation and/or diarrhea
- improvements in other issues, like skin conditions, joint pain, and autoimmune symptoms
After months of optimizing health, some people desire to methodically experiment with liberalizing their diet, observing whether they can maintain energy, mood, cognition, and biomarker gains when adding in moderate amounts of foods not within strict KetoFLEX™ guidelines. Each unique individual develops their own maintenance KetoFLEX™ diet that serves up optimal well-being. You eat delicious real foods, without calorie counting, that make you feel and perform your best.
For most folks, KetoFLEX 12/3™ eating is life-changing.
Please consult your doctor before changing your diet.
Reference: Dale E. Bredesen, “The End of Alzheimer’s: The First Program to Prevent and Reverse Cognitive Decline“, 2017
Dale E. Bredesen, “The End of Alzheimer’s Program: The First Protocol to Enhance Cognition and Reverse Decline at Any Age”, 2020